Friday, September 28, 2007


The chronicle uses AP style. Chronicle reporters are expected to check the Associated Press Stylebook for style. This supplement notes only the exceptions. It also elaborates on some points made in the AP Stylebook.


1. Capitalize academic courses that are proper nouns or adjectives. Example: He is studying English and Russian art. He likes his mathematics class.

Academic courses are capitalized if they include the course number. Example: The freshmen who study computer science always begin with Computer Information Systems 103.

2. Academic degrees are not capitalized. Example: The college confers two-year degrees, the associate of arts and sciences degree and the associate of applied science degree, upon students who have completed all requirements for graduation. (or associate's degree in arts and science)

Examples of academic degrees that follow full names: B.S., B.A., B.F.A., M.A., M.F.A., Ed.D. Ph.D. Note the use of doctorate (noun) and doctoral (adjective). Example: Steve Mittelstet, Ph.D. received his doctorate in a field well known for doctoral work.

3. Identify instructors and administrators. When using academic titles, give instructors credit for their doctoral degrees and their field of expertise. Do not continue the use of Dr. in subsequent references. Example: Dr. Parker Nunley, an anthropology professor, addressed the Social Science Divison. Nunley focused on world problems.

Do not precede a name with a courtesy title for an academic degree and follow it with the abbreviation of the degree in the same reference: Wrong: Dr. Parker Nunley, Ph.D. Right: Dr. Parker Nunley, an anthropology professor.

Faculty members who are full time employees are called professors. Part-time instructors are now referred to as "adjunct professors."

4. Identify students whose names appear in the newspaper. Ex. Sue fields, a freshman majoring in chemistry, will review the books.


1. Use Dallas County Community College District on the first reference. We can't assume readers recognize DCCCD. Use "District" on all subsequent references in the same story. Other Examples: For grade point average, write GPA; for student identification, write ID.

2. Single letters like A's and B's have apostrophes. Do not use for plurals of numerals or multiple letter combinations like GPAs and IDs.


1. Attribute all quotes, paraphrases and opinions in a story to its source. Attribution adds credibility to the story, protects the paper and aids the reader. In attributing information to a person, use the verb "said" unless there is a compelling reason to use some other verb. In most cases, the correct way to write quoted material in a story is as follows:
First reference: "This is an important issue," said Dave Smith, an English professor. "We should not ignore the consequences."

In the basic news style used in most daily newspapers, a quoted reference starts with the first statement, followed by the attribution (see above example). The remainder of the quote is continued after the attribution. Second reference of the source: "The problem is more widespread than we think," Smith said. "We must address the situation before it gets out of hand."

2. Remember always to identify the speaker on the first reference. (See top line under "first Reference")

3. Use "according to" only when citing written documents, like World Alamanac; otherwise "said."


1. Capitalize names of divisions at Richland, such as Humanities Division, or simply use Humanities (second reference). Please see a current organizational chart or division list on the Richland College web site ( for updated division names. Do not use Division (or school) on second reference.

2. Capitalize organizations, such as Art Club, African-American Latino Male Student Alliance, Broadcast Club, etc. See SPAR for a complete and current list of active campus clubs.

3. Capitalize specific programs, such as Honors Program, Testing Center, Study Abroad Program, etc.

4. Capitalize the student government: Richland College Student Government Association. On the second reference, write “student government.”

5. Lower case the general category of the following academic programs: technical/occupational program, international studies programs, continuing education programs, intramural sports program, etc.

6. Capitalize the names of buildings at Richland. Example: Crockett Hall, Bonham Hall, Thunderduck Hall. See map of campus available online on Richland web site or in a current class schedule book. Lowercase halls if naming two or more in a series. Example: Students can find lounges in El Paso and Crockett halls.

7. Capitalize the word “Room” when referring to a numbered room in a Richland building. Example: Brazos Gallery, Room C-140. Special rooms with proper names are capitalized. Example: Performance Hall, Lago Vista Gallery, Arena Theater.

8. Don’t capitalize majors (expect proper names, such as English, French or German). He is a geology and his friend is an English major.

9. Use the Richland Chronicle, caps and lower case, italicized, without quotation marks. Refer to other publications, newspapers, magazines and reference books in the same manner. Examples: The Dallas Morning News, the Fort Worth Star-Telegram, Time magazine, Encyclopedia Brittanica. On second reference, write the Chronicle.

10. Don’t capitalize an individual’s title when it follows his or her name. Example: Steve Mittelstet, president; Ron Clark, vice president of business services. DO Capitalize a formal title when it precedes a name. Example: Vice President Ron Clark met with students at the Evening Outpost. Don’t capitalize freshman or sophomore.

11. Capitalize Fall Semester and Spring Semester but not when using “spring” and “fall” as a season.

12. In sports, capitalize Thunderduck. T-ducks may be used on second reference or in headlines.

13. The word administration should be lowercase in all references, whether it refers to the U.S. president’s or that of the college.


It is the policy of the Richland Chronicle not to allow any changes in quoted material. Always use the source’s exact words. If grammar or diction would embarrass the source of the quote, the policy is to paraphrase and not quote directly.


1. Hyphenate African-American, Mexican-American.

2. When two or more words express a single concept, hyphenate if the words precede a noun (adjective) Most combinations are not hyphenated when they occur after a noun. Example: The play was like a second-half field goal, but it did not occur in the first quarter.

3. No hyphen is required with very words or words ending in –ly (adverbs). Example: The journalism scholarship is a very cherished award.


1. In writing the lead paragraph for an inverted pyramid story, identify and rank the most newsworthy elements by asking what the story is about.

2. Play up the most important feature. Find the angle and keep it brief, but include the 5 Ws and H (who, what, when, where, why, how) important to the story.


Write “brief” stories for inclusion in a “news briefs” or “calendar” section by listing these elements in this order: WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, MORE INFO

Example: The Richland College Cannabis Club will conduct a Bowl-a-Thon at 7 p.m. Thursday, Feb. 31, in El Paso Hall, Room E-066. For more information, call 972-238-1234 or visit

When the event is not on the Richland campus, identify the location in this manner:

Noted drug expert Timothy Leary will speak on the topic “Legalization of Marijuana” at 4:20 p.m. Friday, April 20, at El Centro College in Building W, Room Q-420. For more information, call 972-420-4200 or visit